TR provides requirements for qualification of commercial PLC
TR-107330 (1996) provides requirements for qualification of commercial PLC. It uses the criteria of NUREG/CR-6421. EPRI TR-104159 (1995) includes experience about dedicating COTS SW for PLC-based digital systems such as DAFAS (Diverse Auxiliary Feedwater Actuation System) and Emergency Diesel Bus Load Sequencer in accordance with EPRI NP-5652/TR-106439. It used checklists to demonstrate software quality, which were developed by domain experts. The examples used in TR-104159 are also digital systems using direct COTS SW. TR-1009659 (2005) provides examples about dedicating and qualifying direct commercial digital equipments like temperature controller and digital valve positioner.
In addition, there are also a few researches about applying dedication processes into COTS SW. Kim et al. (2000) proposed a COTS SW dedication process based on NUREG/CR-6421 and used methods of TR-106439 to apply SQA identification. However, it kinesin 5 does not mention about indirect SW and uses the method ‘Survey of supplier’ only. Kim et al. (2010) performed the direct COTS SW dedication of QNX RTOS (Real-Time Operating System). It focused on the method 1 of NP-5652/TR-106439. Kim et al. (2007) also performed the direct COTS SW dedication of PROFIBUS FMS-Driver on the basis of NP-5652/TR-106439. ‘TRICONEX’ (Triconex Approved Topical Report, 2012) of ‘Invensys’, a PLC-based system, was dedicated successfully in accordance with TR-106439. It used NUREG-0800 branched technical plan 7–18 (NUREG-0800 STR BTP 7-18, 2007), which uses criteria information of NUREG/CR-6421 and TR-107330, as our approach.
Conclusion and future work The indirect COTS SW dedication has an arguable issue that standards and organizations have different points of view in dedication targets such as V&V tools. NUREG/CR-6421 classifies software tools like testing, model checking and simulation as ‘Unclassified’, while EPRI NP-5652/TR-1025243 classify some of them as ‘Non-safety-related but augmented quality’. On the other hands, international standards on functional safety such as IEC-61508 and IEC-60880 require levels of safety demonstration of such supplementary software tools, too. We are now trying to analyze the proposed dedication process and evaluation criteria in terms of functional safety standards. We are also planning to extend the process from a security point of view.
Introduction Social memory can be conceived as the expression of society’s highest ideals—“a register of sacred history” (Schwartz, 1982, p. 377). Such memory results from complex processes involving the way in which past events have been remembered or forgotten. In the 1914–1918 Great War, a total of 9.5 million men were killed and they, rather than the survivors, have formed the basis for the social memories of that war. Civilian deaths have not been commemorated at all in most official ceremonies. To help people make sense of the enormous military casualties and perhaps to encourage the belief in a just war, death was framed within notions of honour and heroic self-sacrifice (Larsson, 2009, Morris, 1997, Vance, 1997). Within these memories, there was little place for the “ruined veteran in the myth of the war” (Vance, 1997, p. 53) and such was the veneration of those killed in battle that Larsson (2009, p. 247) refers to the survivors as those who were “unsuccessfully killed”. Thousands of these men suffered serious psychological and physical injuries as a result of their war experiences, yet they were virtually forgotten in the post war myths, and together with their families who cared for them, they endured years of hardship. Understandably, the mass death created widespread grief at all levels of society, and at the time, people promised to remember these ‘fallen’ forever. To this end, society literally set their memories of the dead in stone, where they were most visibly articulated in monuments dedicated to the missing and in national tombs of unknown soldiers. Mosse (1990, p. 80) argues that the dead were memorialized in a “cult of the fallen soldier” where the military cemeteries played a central part. This paper is concerned with the broad issue of tourists’ involvement in creating and maintaining social memory of the Great War, through their practices of remembrance at military cemeteries on the Western Front.