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  • br Methods and materials br Results Overall

    2021-09-16


    Methods and materials
    Results Overall, free glutamate intakes in US children and adults are shown in Table 1. The sample-weighted mean intake of crude free glutamate was 258 mg/d for children and 322 mg/d for adults. Furthermore, the corresponding energy-adjusted value was 136 mg/1000 kcal and 155 mg/1000 kcal for children and adults, respectively. For both children and adults, energy-adjusted free glutamate intake was highest in the Mexican American and older age group (ie, 12-19 y for children and 40-59 y and ≥60 y age groups for adults). For adults, energy-adjusted free glutamate intake was higher among females, and those A 967079 with high education (above college level) or high poverty income ratio (≥3.50), compared to the other demographic groups. Percentage contribution to free glutamate intake was calculated using WWEIA broad food category (Fig. 1 for children and Fig. 2 for adults). For both children and adults, mixed dishes were the major contributor to free glutamate intake (35.9% and 34.4% among children and adults, respectively), and its percentage contribution tended to be larger among Mexican American than other race/ethnicity groups. Other major contributors were protein foods (11.7%), milk and dairy (9.6%), fruits (9.3%), condiments and sauces (9.0%), and vegetables (7.9%) for children; and vegetables (14.9%), protein foods (13.9%), and condiments and sauces (7.8%) for adults. For children, the percentage contribution of mixed dishes was relatively high, while those of milk and dairy and fruits were relatively low in older age groups. For adults, the percentage contribution of fruits and vegetables tended to be larger among females (fruits = 8.3% and vegetables = 17.3%) than males (fruits = 4.6% and vegetables = 13.0%). In addition, the percentage contribution of protein and mixed dishes appeared to be larger among males (protein = 15.0% and mixed dishes = 35.9%) than females (protein = 12.5% and mixed dishes = 32.5%). The percentage contribution of mixed dishes and condiments and sauces was relatively low and those of fruits and vegetables was relatively high in old age, high education level (the exception being fruits among <12 years of education group), and high poverty income ratio groups. In children, the main food sources of free glutamate (according to WWEIA-specific food categories) were fruits (9.3%), condiments and sauces (9.0%), and mixed dishes-grain based (8.1%) (Supplemental Table S2). Based on age groups and race-ethnicity, the percentage contribution of each specific food category was also calculated, which showed significant associations with energy-adjusted free glutamate intake. Condiments and sauces, mixed dishes-pizza, and mixed dishes-sandwiches made larger contributions to free glutamate intake in children (6-11 y) and adolescents (12-19 y), relative to 2-5 y. Milk, flavored drinks and substitutions and 100% juice had a larger contribution among younger than older age groups. Condiments and sauces were the second or third largest contributor of free glutamate intake in all races/ethnicities. Likewise, fruits were also one of the largest contributors (except for Non-Hispanic black), while mixed dishes-Mexican was the leading contributor only among the Mexican American group. In adults, major food sources of free glutamate were vegetables-excluding potatoes (13.6%), mixed dishes-meat, poultry, seafood (8.5%), and condiments and sauces (7.8%) (Supplemental Table S3). The percentage contribution of each specific food category was also calculated according to sex, age groups (Supplemental Table S3), race-ethnicity, years of education, and poverty income ratio (Supplemental Table S4); these variables showed significant associations with energy-adjusted free glutamate intake. Vegetables-excluding potatoes and mixed dishes-meat, poultry, seafood primarily contributed to free glutamate intake among both genders and all age groups. Fruits had larger contributions among females (8.3%), 40-59 y (7.1%), and ≥60 y (7.8%), compared with the corresponding male groups (4.6%) and 20-39 y (4.4%). Mixed dishes-Mexican, mixed dishes-pizza, and mixed dishes-sandwiches had larger contributions among the younger age group, but mixed dishes-soups had a larger contribution among the older age group. Similar to children, mixed dishes-Mexican was the largest contributor only among Mexican Americans. Poultry and mixed dishes-sandwiches made large contributions among the Non-Hispanic black population (8.4% and 8.6%, respectively), while their contribution was less than 6% among other race/ethnicity groups. Fruits and plant-based protein foods were the largest contributors among the high education group (above college level), compared to other groups. Among the highest poverty income ratio group (≥3.5), the contribution of fruits (7.0%) was higher than the other income groups (5.6% and 5.8% for 1.3 and 1.3-3.49, respectively).